Area and population: It is bounded on the north by Palakkad district, on the east by Palakkad district and Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu, on the south by Ernakulam and Idukki districts, and on the west by the Arabian Sea. The area of the district is 3032 sq. km., while the population is 2,975,440 according to 2001 census.
Natural Divisions: Descending from the heights of the Western Ghats in the east, the land slopes towards the west forming three distinct natural divisions - the highlands, the plains and the sea board
River System: The Periyar, the Chalakudy, the Karuvannur, and the Ponnani (Bharatha Puzha) are the main river systems in the district. They take their origin from the mountains on the east, and flow westward and discharge into the Arabian Sea. There are a number of tributaries also joining these main rivers.
The district has a tropical humid climate with an oppressive hot season and plentiful and seasonal rainfall. The hot season from March to May is followed by the South West Monsoon season from June to September. The period from December to February is the North East Monsoon season, although the rain stop by the end of December and the rest of the period is generally dry.
FLORA AND FAUNA
The mountain ranges with thick evergreen forests afford ideal abode for various animals and game including diverse birds while the middle country with hills and low plateau, mostly cleared for cultivation and human habitation, still affords shelter and food for many of the smaller mammals, birds and reptiles and also many lower animals of diverse groups. The lowlands of the extreme west, bordering the coastline are dotted with backwaters and estuaries of rivers, all connected by an interesting system of canals forming a continuous waterway. Its waters abound in fish and afford feeding ground for many water birds, local and migrant, while the plains have rich fauna representing all groups. Among the mammals the Primates are represented by the langurs and monkeys. Coconut palm and paddy are mainly cultivated in the lowlands.
The total population of Thrissur district according to the census of 2001 is 2,975,440 of whom 1,422,047 are men and 1,553,393 are women. Hindus constitute the bulk of the population of this district. Other communities are Christians and Muslims. The Konkani Brahmins are another immigrant caste and they are found mainly in Cranganore and Mukundapuram taluks.
The Nairs who till recently followed the Marumakkathayam family system constitute the most important section among the Hindus of Thrissur. Now a vast majority of them have taken to agriculture while others have been absorbed in Government service and other professions. Till a few decades ago, the Nairs were divided into several sub-castes and inter-dining and inter-marriages were not permitted among them. The Nairs attached to Namboodiri and Kshatriya houses for certain domestic and religious services were called Illathu Nairs and Swarupattil Nairs respectively. Charna Nairs, Pallichans, Vattekadans, Odathu Nairs, Auduru Nairs and Attikurussi Nairs are other Nair subdivisions. Every Nair had a title affixed to his name. Achan, Kartha, Kaimal and Mannadiar were some of the titles of nobility conferred on the Nairs by the Rajas of Cochin while Panikkar and Kurup were the titles of those who maintained Kalaries as their hereditary profession. Menon was the title conferred on the Nairs who followed a literacy career. When the country underwent tremendous changes, strict observations of caste rules fell into disuse.
The Samanthans, though very few in number in the district, are said to have sprung from the union of Kshatriya men with Nair women. They have marumakkathayis. The Ezhavas who follow Makkathayam are numerically one of the strongest communities in Thrissur. They have attained important positions as merchants, landowners and cultivators. A good number of them have also taken to learned professions. Velythedans, Velakkattalavans and Chaliyans are hereditary washermen, barbers and weavers respectively. Ezhuthachans otherwise known as Kadupottans who follow the patriarchal system of inheritance are supposed to be the descendants of Pattar Brahmins. They are hereditary village school masters. The Valans, Arayans and Mukkuvas are fishermen mostly living in the coastal areas of Thrissur district. Besides, there are a number of other castes like the Mannans, Velans, Pulluvans and Pattilans in the district.
Another section among the Hindus is the Kammalas who are divided into carpenters, masons, braziers, blacksmiths, goldsmiths etc. As their service is essential, they are till engaged in their traditional occupations. But in recent years a sizable section of them have taken to modern education and steady progress. The Devanga Chettis and Kaikolans are weaving castes found in Mukundapuram taluk. They immigrated into the district from Mysore and Coimbatore respectively. The Vaniyans Kudumis, Pandithans, Kallans, Pandarams, Ambattans, Vannans, Chakkiliyans and Kusavan are also immigrant castes. The Vaniyans wear the sacred thread and resemble Konkani Brahmins. The Pandarams are engaged in making Pappadam, the favourite crisp cake of the Malayalees. Ambattans are Tamil barbers and Vannans are Tamil washermen.
The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes form a significant section among the Hindus of the district. The former are mainly agricultural labourers and are found in all the Taluks. The Scheduled Tribes of the district are the Kadar, the Malayar and the Mathuvans. The Kadar of the area belong to two clans, the Anamala Kadar living at Parambikulam and West Kadar living at Adirappilli. The Malayar and Kadar are nomadic people.
Christians form the second largest community in the district. It is strange that Cranganore where the Gospel of Christ is believed to have been first preached in India should have the lowest proportion of Christians among the taluks of the district. The earliest Church in the district was a Nestorian branch of the Asiatic Church presided over by Bishops usually ordained in Persia. The early Christians were known as Syrian Christians. The Syrians Catholics, Latin Catholics, Jacobites, the Reformed Syrians and Protestants are some of the main sections of the Christian Community in the district . In Thrissur and its neighbourhood there is a small community of Christians known as Chaldeans.
The Christians have a predominant place in the social and economic life of the district. Trade and agriculture are the chief occupations of the community. There have been several survivals of Hindu customs among the Christians such as caste prejudice, belief in astrology, omens, witchcraft and charms, the tying of the tali as part of the marriage ceremony and its removal on the death of the husband, the performance of Sradha or the annual ceremony for the soul of the dead etc.
Muslims form the third major community in the district. A majority of them are found in Chavakkad and Kodungalloor taluks. Most of them are Sunnis. Some of the Muslims are cultivators or traders, while the majority are boatmen, fishermen and labourers of every description.
CUSTOMS AND RITUALS
Serpent (naga) worship and ancestor worship, evidently non-Aryan practices, have been widely prevalent in the district. The temples here are centres of religious activity. The Vadakkunnathan Temple at Thrissur, Koodalmanikam temple at Irinjalakuda, the Kurumba Bhagavathi temple at Kodungalloor, the Sri Rama Temple at Triprayar, the Sri Krishna Temple at Guruvayoor are some of the reputed shrines. The prominent Gods and Goddesses worshipped are Vishnu, Siva, Bhagavathi, Siva, Bhagavathi, Subramonia and Sastha.
Fasting is a significant form of religious observance. It is observed on Shashti, Ekadasi, Pradosham, Full Moon and New Moon days. On Shashti viz. the sixth day of the fortnight, fast is observed by those who wish for issue. Ekadasi is sacred to Vishnu and Pradosham to Siva. Fast in honour of the Goddess Parvathi is observed on Full Moon days. The observance of festivals is an important aspect of religious activities. Here special mention may be made of the three major festivals of the Malayalees viz. Onam, Vishu and Tiruvathira. Among the ceremonies still current may be mentioned Namakaranam, Chorunu, Vidyarambham, Upanayanam and Sradha.
The laws of inheritance prevalent in the district have been the makkathayam (Patrilineal) and Marumakkathayam (Matrilineal system). Marumakkathayam is the dominant one which most of the people were in allegiance. The Ambalavasis, the Kshatriyas, Samantans, Velekkattavans, Veluthedans and a few other castes have followed the Marumakkathayam system in the district. Among the communities that have followed the Makkathayam system may be mentioned the Namboothiris, Ezhavas, Kammalas, Kanakkans, Cherumans, Tanda Pulayans, Vettuvas, Ezhuthachans, Kanisans, Panans, Perumannans, Mannans, Velas, Velans, Arayans, Amukuvans, Mukkuvans, Marakkans and all the hill tribes. The Christians and Muslims also have been Makkathayis.
The famous Thrissur Pooram is an annual festival celebrated during April-May in the Vadakkumnathan temple here. During the festival idols of Gods and Goddesses from various temples are brought in all pomp and pagentry with the play of drums and musical instruments and pro-technics to the Thekkinkadu Maaidan. Lakhs of people attend the festival every year. An all India Exhibition is also conducted every year during the Pooram days under the combined auspices of the Thiruvampady and Paramekkavu Devaswoms at the temple premises.ഫോര് മോര് ഇന്ഫര്മേഷന് ക്ലിക്ക് ഹിയര്
കടപ്പാട് : http://www.tsr.kerala.gov.in
Thrissur pronunciation (help·info) (Malayalam: തൃശൂര്) previously known as Trichur, is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the headquarters of the Thrissur District. Thrissur city is built around a 65-acre (26 ha) hillock called the Thekkinkadu Maidan which seats the Vadakkumnathan temple. Thrissur is the 5th most populous city in Kerala by population and the second-largest city corporation by area in the state. It is located about 290 kilometres (180 mi) north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram and 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of the major port city of Kochi.
Thrissur is also known as the Cultural Capital of Kerala because of its cultural, spiritual and religious leanings towards history. It houses the Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka Academy, Kerala Lalita Kala Akademi and Kerala Sahitya Academy.Thrissur Pooram festival, the most colourful and spectacular temple festival in Kerala. The festival is held at the Thekkinkadu Maidan in April or May. Thrissur has a large number of well-known temples including the Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple, Vadakkumnathan temple and Paramekkavu temple, as well as two famous churches, the Our Lady of Lourdes Metropolitan Cathedral and the Basilica of Our Lady of Dolours. Thrissur is also the venue of Pulikali during Onam celebrations in August or September. The city hosts the
The city derives its historical importance from when Christianity, Islam and Judaism entered in to the Indian subcontinent. Thomas the Apostle set foot here 2,000 years ago. (AD 51-52) The country’s first mosque, Cheraman Juma Masjid, opened in AD 629. It has opened the gates for Arabs, Romans, Portuguese, Dutch and English.
The city is an incubator for every Malayali entrepreneur, and is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala. It flexes its economic muscle in Indiascheduled banks, South Indian Bank Ltd, Catholic Syrian Bank and Dhanalakshmi Bank Ltd and a clutch of Chit funds.Kerala for silks and gold jewellery. Thrissur ranks first in the number of domestic tourists in Kerala. as the headquarters of three major The city is also a big centre for shopping in
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